Role-Audience-Format-Topic (RAFT)
Description
This strategy asks students to creatively analyze and synthesize the information from a particular text or texts by taking on a particular role or perspective, defining the target audience, and choosing an appropriate written format to convey their understanding of the content topic. (N. Vandervanter, in Adler 1982; Santa, 1988)

Purpose
Use before, during, and after reading to:
Enhance comprehension of main ideas, organization, and point of view
Process information and reflect in unusual ways about concepts they have read
Provide a creative, authentic way of communicating what was learned that can enhance students’ engagement in writing or presentation tasks
Encourage students to consider perspectives different than their own
Help students communicate what they have learned using their preferred learning styles

Check out this website to give you ideas for the content area you work in for a RAFT: http://www.tantasqua.org/Superintendent/Profdevelopment/etraft.html

Directions
1.Explain what a RAFT is and why it is helpful.
2.Model a RAFT for students using a simple text or well-known concept/topic.
3.Assign a text for students to read. Before reading, note the different perspectives in the text.
4.Brainstorm 3–4 possible roles that students could assume in their writing. Typically multiple roles-audiences-formats-topics are selected for a content concept, from which students may design their preferred RAFT.
5.Students select the four components that most interest them to communicate their learning.


Examples of RAFT Assignments
Role
Audience
Format
Topic
Newspaper Reporter
Readers in the 1870's
Obituary
Qualities of General Custer
Lawyer
U.S. Supreme Court
Appeal Speech
Dred Scott Decision
Abraham Lincoln
Dear Abby
Advice Column
Problems with his generals
Mike Royko
Public
News Column
Capital punishment
Frontier Woman
Self
Diary
Hardships of the West
Constituent
U.S. Senator
Letter
Gun control
News Writer
Public
News Release
Ozone layer has been formed
Chemist
Chemical company
Instructions
Combinations to avoid
Wheat Thin
Other Wheat Thins
Travel Guide
Journey through the digestive system
Plant
Sun
Thank-you note
Sun's role in plant's growth
Scientist
Charles Darwin
Letter
Refute a point in evolution theory
Square Root
Whole Number
Love letter
Explain relationship
Repeating Decimal
Set of Rational Numbers
Petition
Prove you belong to this set
Cook
Other cooks
Recipe
Alcoholism
Julia Child
TV audience
Script
Wonders of eggs
Advertiser
TV audience
Public Service
Importance of fruit
Lungs
Cigarettes
Complaint
Effects of smoking
Huck Finn
Jim
Letter
What I learned during the trip
Joseph Stalin
George Orwell
Letter
Reactions to Animal Farm
Comma
9th grade students
Complaint
How it is misused
Trout
Self
Diary
Effects of acid rain on lake

RAFT Examples for Math
Role
Audience
Format
Topic
Zero
Whole numbers
Campaign speech
Importance of the number 0
Scale factor
Architect
Directions for a blueprint
Scale drawings
Percent
Student
Tip sheet
Mental ways to calculate percents
Repeating decimal
Customers
Petition
Proof/check for set membership
Prime number
Rational numbers
Instructions
Rules for divisibility
Parts of a graph
TV audience
Script
How to read a graph
Exponent
Jury
Instructions to the jury
Laws of exponents
One
Whole numbers
Advice column
Perfect, abundant, deficient, amicable numbers
Variable
Equations
Letter
Role of variables
Container
Self
Diary
Comparing volume measurements
Acute triangle
Obtuse triangle
Letter
Explain differences of triangles
Function
Relations
Article
Argue the importance of functions
RAFT Examples for Science
Role
Audience
Format
Topic
Water drop
Other water drops
Travel guide
Journey through water cycle
Bean
Self
Diary
Process of germination
Frog
Tadpole
Letter
Life cycle
Electron
Fourth grade students
Letter
Journey through a parallel circuit
Limestone rock
Cave visitors
Postcard
Chemical weathering process
Statue
Dear Abby readers
Advice column
Effect of acid rain
Trout
Farmers
Letter
Effects of fertilizer runoff
Duck
U.S. Senator
Letter
Effects of oil spill
Star
Self
Diary
Life cycle
Peregrine falcon
Public
News column
Effects of DDT
Red blood cell
Lungs
Thank-you note
Journey through circulatory system
Liver
Alcohol
Complaint
Effects of drinking
Lungs
Brain
Thank-you note
Quitting smoking
Rusty old car
Previous owner
Letter
Chemical change
RAFT Examples for Social Studies
Role
Audience
Format
Topic
Sacajawea
Jean Baptiste
Letter
Our travels with Lewis and Clark
Newspaper Reporter
Readers in 1851
News report
Native Americans sign treaty at Ft. Laramie
Dead Confederate Soldier
Robert E. Lee
Complaint
Pickett's Charge
Bird
Wright Brothers
Complaint
New invention disrupts skies
21st Century Woman
Susan B. Anthony
Thank-you note
Women's Rights
Alexander the Great
Aristotle
Letter
What I have seen on my journeys
Ben Franklin
Dear Abby
Advice column
My son likes the British
Kaiser Wilhelm II
European Heads of State
Recipe
How we can start a World War
Kit Carson
Future tourists
Travel guide
Beautiful places in the West
Mohandas Gandhi
Martin Luther King Jr.
Letter
Nonviolent opposition/resistence
Great Wall of China
Self
Diary
Invaders I have seen and stopped
Colorado River
Rafters
Travel guide
What you will see if you travel my length
Rain Forest
Humans
Complaint
Deforestation
Constituent
Governor
Letter
State taxes
21st Century American
James Madison
Thank-you note
The Constitution

Extensions
When first learning the RAFT strategy, have students work in cooperative groups.
Have individual students or small groups brainstorm the four RAFT components rather than using the teacher-created list.
Have students publish their RAFT writing/presentations to authentic audiences.